Introduction to C# (C Sharp)
C# is the object-oriented and type-safe programming language that enables programmers to build enterprise-scale applications using Microsoft .Net platform.
C# was created by Anders Hejlsberg, Scot Wiltamuth, and Peter Golde and is defined by the standard (European Computers Manufacturers Association) ECMA-334. C# supports XML and SOAP and has access to the .NET class library. C# is similar in syntax to both C++ and Java and is considered by Microsoft as the natural evolution of the C and C++ languages.
Both C# and Java have some common advanced features such as automatic garbage collection and initially compiling to an intermediate language. C# first compiles the code to Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) and Java first compiles the code to bytecode. Because C# supports .Net Framework, the Common Language Runtime (CLR) engine is used to compile the program code to MSIL and then just-in-time to the native code. Instead, Java uses Java Virtual Machine (JVM) to compiles the program code to Java bytecode and then interprets it to the native code.
When it comes to C++, the difference is not very deep but still there are some significant changes in C#. C# does not contain header files that mean code can be written inline. Moreover, the plumbing of C# types is different from that of C++ types. C# types are derived from the object type. In addition there is no concept of multiple class inheritance in C#. C# is case sensitive, therefore, you will get compiler errors when you write console instead of Console.
C# support two kinds of types: value types and reference types. Value types directly contain the data of the variables but reference types store references to objects. A few examples of value types include char type, int type, float type, enum type, and struct type and a few examples of reference types include class types, delegate types, array types, and interface types.
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