What Object Oriented Principles can be incorporated in .NET Application?

Each developer will have different coding style and they might follow different standards. In such cases, when a developer tries to maintain code of another developer then it might be very difficult. Is there a common set of principles which when followed ensures maintainability, reusability, efficiency and integrity of an application? Yes, Object Oriented Programming provides such set of principles. If these principles are followed in your coding then no doubt that your project will be easily maintainable and reusable.

.NET programming languages like C# are object oriented. Hence your .NET application can incorporate all object oriented concepts. Given below are different object oriented principles along with C# examples to demonstrate how these principles can be incorporated in .NET application:

Encapsulation: Covering up of data and methods using that data into a single unit is known as encapsulation. Encapsulation is achieved in .NET application using classes. Here is an example:
class sampleAdd {
int num1, num2;
public void setData(int num1, int num2) {
this.num1 = num1;
this.num2 = num2;
public int Add() {
return (num1 + num2);

In this example, you have the data members (num1, num2) and the methods that access them (setData, Add) inside a single unit (class sampleAdd). Thus you have performed encapsulation.

Abstraction: Aim of object oriented programming is to represent all real world entities into objects. While representing real world entities as objects, you specify only the necessary attributes for your application and hide all other attributes and background details. This is known abstraction. Using abstraction you can represent any real world entity (how much ever complex it is) as an object that is simple to understand and implement.

For example, C# can provide abstraction of real world entity “color” using the color class which is predefined in the C# library and you can color an image using any different color by creating an object of color class. Here is an example to demonstrate it:

public static Bitmap colorImage(Bitmap sampleImage) {
Bitmap sampleBitmap = new Bitmap(sampleImage.Width, sampleImage.Height);
for (int indexWidth = 0; indexWidth < sampleImage.Width; indexWidth++) {
for (int indexHeight = 0; indexHeight < sampleImage.Height; indexHeight++) {
Color sampleColor = Color.FromArgb(110,40,250,120);
sampleBitmap.SetPixel(indexWidth, indexHeight, sampleColor);
return sampleBitmap;

In this example, you can also use colors like Color.Red, Color.Blue directly. Here the object sampleColor models the color of real world in an abstract way.

Inheritance: Inheritance is where a real world entity extends the behavior of another real world entity. For example, think about the real world entiry Car. Car is a generalized entity. When you think about using a car, you will be using different models of the car namely indica, toyota, logon and many others. All of them have the features of Car and are specialized in their own way. Instead of repeating car features in each of the car, you will define car features in a class and you inherit the class into multiple other classes each specifying a particular type of car.

This inheritance is achieved in C# using <derived class>:<base class> syntax as shown below:

class car { … }
class toyota:car { … }
class logon:car { … }

Polymorphism: When an object can take more than one form, then polymorphism is said to occur. There are two types of polymorphism namely static polymorphism and dynamic polymorphism. Both of them can be implemented in your .NET application using the following:

• Static Polymorphism is achieved in .NET using Overloading. Overloading means that same method can have multiple definitions. Number and type of arguments should vary for each definition.
• Dynamic Polymorphism is achieved in .NET using Overriding where in the method in base class can be inherited and overridden by the derived class.

Both overloading and overriding can be implemented in C# using the code shown below:

class sampleClass {
public void displayMsg() {
Console.WriteLine(“In sampleClass”);
public void displayMsg(string data) {
Console.WriteLine(“In sampleClass:” + data);
class derivedClass:sampleClass {
public override void displayMsg() {
Console.WriteLine(‘In derivedClass”);
class testClass {
public static void Main() {
sampleClass obj = new sampleClass();
obj = new derivedClass();

Output of this code will be:

In sampleClass
In sampleClass:Overloading
In derivedClass

In this example, you have a class called sampleClass. In this class, the method displayMsg is overloaded with two different definitions. This is an example of static polymorphism. Then the sampleClass is inherited by derivedClass and in derivedClass you have overridden displayMsg method. This is an example of dynamic polymorphism.

Message Communication: In object oriented programming, you map all real world entities into objects. But how do you establish communication among objects? That is done in C# using the code: <object name>.<method name>(<parameters>). Consider the above example; inside testClass you access method of sampleClass using the following line of code: obj.displayMsg(“Overloading”). This is how you establish message communication in C#.

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